|Home Forum Wiki Notes Mobile Register FAQ Sitemap About Us Contact Us||
Manisegaran on the Dravidian Movement
I am not a beliver in party politics. I did study the Dravidian Movement. I am condensing the rise and fall of the movement from a book that I myself wrote in 1990. I am not in favour nor against the DM. But I am of the opoinion that from the beginning the DK lost its destination, and got itself confused in the later days. I will try to give a sane view. But what is sane to me may be insane to others. Every coin has 2 sides. No soda bottles and cycle chains please. I humbly request the udanpirappukkal and the blood's bloods to complete reading the entire series before passing comments. Thanks for the cooperation in advance.
RISE OF THE DRAVIDIAN MOVEMENT
The Dravidiam Movement had some noble and lofty motives,dreams and goals, at least in the initial days. Thanthai Periyar had seen much injustice in the social life of the Indians, more so the Tamils. Periyar was a member in what was called the "Then Inthiyar Nala Urimai Changam". The name itself implied that it was a regional movment- for the South Indians, not for the Tamils alone. (I am told that E.V. Ramasamy is a Naiker from Karnataka?) But the base was in Tamilnadu. When the movement was called by this name it was not that forceful as yet. The movement was very cleverly called the Suyamariyathai Iyakkam, indirectly imlying that ony those with suya mariyathai are members and those without membership were void of suyamariyathai. It was a fashion in those days to be associated as suyamariyathikkaran. They were also called Pagutharivalarkal, as though the others had no pagutharivu or rational mind. It was a new wave altogether.
The movement took another turn when the most powerful poersonality, CN Annadurai came to the scene. In 1944, the movement had its maanaadu-convention in Salem, where it took a new and present name-Dravidar Kazhagam. It was Annadurai who proposed this name. But the kozhgai never changed, at least at that point of time. A test of loyalty came when India achieved its independence in 1947. We know Periyar as anjatha singam, and he used to wash away nonsense as "ithu enna Vengayam?". SO when India's independence was was on the negotiation table, Periyar was not very much in favour of it. He felt that the British should stay longer to discipline the Indians. In his opinion the Indians, especially the southerners had much more to learn from the Britishers. He wanted them to learn much more from the whites before acquiring independence. He also felt that the social system in India had to be reformed drastically before independence is granted. This same Periyar had called the Tamil language "Kaattu Mirandi mozhi" for whatever justification he may provide. India was already undergoing drastic and dramatic chemges under Lord Curzon and Robert Clive. That would make Periyar's work much easier. He pressed his ideas of delayed independence, together with Mahatma Gandhi, though Ghandi had other agenda. But people like Nehru wanted early independence for obvious reasons. But there were already some "young Turks" within the DK who were not in total agreement with Periyar on the issue of delayed independence. These Turks remained silent at that moment.
Whe Independence was granted against the wishes of Periyar. Periyar announced that the independence day should be condemned as "thukka naal". Anna announced that it should be celebrated as a "inba naal". After independence Periyar took a radical turn and wanted some form of guarantee for the suppresed and the downtrodden. In ordser to steal away some limelight he initated a programme to cathe the attention of those in power, and to garner the support of those for whom he championed.
Their programme included the following strategies:
1. Proper use of the independence
2. Suppression of those in the higher castes, especially the Brahmins
3.Ushering social reform.
4. Bringing about economic prosperity
5. Enure some mild form of socialism
6. Suppressing the political domination by the northeners( populary called the vadp pulathaar)
7. Abolishing all forms of superstitions
8. Fight for equal rights and preveleges for women
A close look at such measures indicated above would reveal that Periyar was caught and influeunced by the new wave that had just swept in Russia. He strongly wanted radical measures. Unfortunately he could not move much, as Periyar had the ideas, but no executive powers, simply because he was not in power, meaning political power. He believed that the DK should be a pressure gropu to dictate the politicians, but he was careful not to drag the DK into politics. But the Young Turks thought otherwise. In order to avoid political influence within the DK Periyar avoided elections, voting campaigning etc in the movement.
Somehow, the leader of the "Young Turks", Anna emerged as the number 2 man in the DK. Anna was appointed the Secretary General of DK. Anna did not agree with Periyar that the DK should keep away from politics. Anna felt the the only way to deliver the goods was to get involved in politics and come to power. Otherwise mere shouting from outside would avail no benefit. This is where Anna and Periyar openly differed in opinio-both of them in strong terms. Periyar feared that Anna would leave the movement with a sizeable group and join politics. Periyar then took the most shrewd move to keep Anna within DK. He decided to give the leadership of the movement to Anna. BUt Anna was smart. He originated as arignar, evolved into perarignar and later came to be called maamethai. Anna in no uncertain terms rejected the calculated move. But Periyar pursued. On 24-10 1948 the DK maanaadu was convened in Erode. There Periyar said" Naan pothu thondil eeduppattu 40 aandukalukku mel aagivittathu. Enakko vayathu ezhubathukke melakivittathu. Ethanai naatkalukkuthaan iniyum ennaal uzhaikka mudiyum? Indraya maanaattin thalaivaraana Annadurai oruvar pothum, namathu kazhagathai nadathichella. Aagave indru enathu petti chaviyai Annavidam ungal munnilayil koduthuvidukiren"
But the shrewd Anna did not acept the post. Had he accepted the post he could not have joined politics. Anna had a burning desire to leave DK to emerge as an independedt personality with the full support of the young Turks. Anna was certainly ambitious. He was looking for excuses, typical of any politician. The long waited excuse came in the form of wedding bells. Thallaadi, alladi, thandoonum Periyar got married to the young Maniyammai. Periyar said that only a young and energetic lady could be actively helping him in social works. But Anna called it "Poruntha Thirumanam" At that time many rich people were exploiting the poverty situation of the gilrs in soiety by getting married to them. The DK was condemning this action. But the leader himself became the predator. That was suffcient excuse for the Anna and company. Anna and the thamies who are the thanga kambies(not zombies)left DK after shedding some "tears". The separation was tearful in the eyes, though happy in heart.
17-9 -1949 was a fateful day for Tamilnaadu. In a building at number 7, Pavalakkaru Theru, Madras the Dravidar Munnetra Kazhagam was inaugurated. Purpose? To advocate the same kozhkai of the DK. Same kozhgai, yet a separate and parallel body? Aarambame out! BUt leave this to the DMK people they will cook thideer excuses, like thideer palakaaram. Anna knew that the DMK did not have the blessings of Periyar. SO he announced that the DK and DMK will function like a "double barrel gun that aims the same target". This was the beginning of all the flowery words that flowed from the lips of the DMK politicians.
(Part 2 to be continued when I have the time. Humour is in store for sure.)
PART II The GROWTH OF THE DMK
The young Turks were people like Anna, Nedunjelian, EVK Sambath, and Karunanithi who felt that there was no room for their growth in the DK under Periyar. When they started the DMK all Anna wanted was only about 500 branches. To his surprise within a short span of time the party grew to have a mass following with thousands of branches. There were branches in other states of India, let alone similar "branches" emerging in Burma, Malaysia, and Ceylon too.
Anna was initially worried that the DMK will not grow without the blessings of Periyar. It will be natural for DK and DMK to exchange war of words, as is common behaviour for splits in any organisation. Anna once again proved to have mastered his politics. Instead of condemning Periyar, he praised him sky high, and in the course of it he did not give room for Periyar to hit back at the splinter group. Anaa's praise of Periyar was "vancha pugazhchi"- a form of criticism under the guise of praise. By so doing Anna and company crippled the DK to a large extent. It was surely a calculated and cunning move. He also shut the mouth of Periyar using high level psychology. Anna said that the DMK will not have any Thalaivar. The Thalaivar post will be permanently kept for Periyar(?) while Anna will take up the post of Secretary General.
What was the reason for this meteoric growth of the DMK? I must at the outset mention that there was no clear-cut program for the party, as they kept on changing their stand every now and then. But let me identify some of the reasons that attributed to the rapid growthy of the party.
The DMK had capitalised on some issues. The basic was of course "Tamizh, Thamizhan, Tamizhnadu" They made the people believe that they are the guardians and the saviours of this language. For this purpose they became some of the best orators in Tamilnadu. Madras was called Tamilnadu. Madras city was called Chennai. They wrote dialogues for the films which had patriotic values, especially love for the Tamil language.
In order to portray that they love the Tamil language more than their lives, they even went ahead to call themselves in pure Tamil names, against what was given by their parents. They hated the northern names. Narayanasamy became Nedunjelian. Each leader had either a title or pure Tamil name, such as:
Sollin Selvar(EVK Sambath)
By having these names they came to be identified as unique personalities.
Tamil was used to the fullest.This group ws totally banned from entering the colleges in the intial stages. But later this was the only group that was invited and alowed into the compound-all because of the Tamil language.
They also became good writers. Murasoli, a magazine by Karunanithi was doing a fine job. Kannadsan too had his contribution, along with others. There were powerful dravidian writers
Then they talked about Dravidar Nadu. We know the southern border is in Kanyakumari and the east and west are flanked by the seas. But the DMK was not in a position to identify the northern border. They said that Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Tamilnadu will make up the Dravidar Nadu. Alright. These people proposed. Did the other three states give their consent? The answers is a no.
The DMK party seemed to have deceived the people. Each one started to speak in 2 voices-one "Adith Thondai" when facing the microphone. The other is Madras Tamil. It came to be accepted as a fashion. They also made sure veshti, jippa and angavasthiram never parted them. They all wore cooling glasses for glamour. Nedunjelian's identity was ilanthadi on the chin. Karunanithi was centre parting on the head. Nanjilar was cooling glass and never growing arumbu meesai. MGR later was on kulla and cooling glass.
The DMK group took powerful movies and staged powerful dramas. At that time these were the best form of entertainment. Remember Nallavan Vazhvan, Velaikkari, Manohara, Parasakthy, Thalai Koduthan Thambi, Nadodi Mannan, Manathi Mannan, Thirumbippaar, Manhtiri Kumari, Puthumaipithan, Malaikkallan, Maruthanattu Ilavarasi, Genoa, Madurai Veeran, Ethaiyum Thangum Ithayam, Thai Magalkluku Kattiya Thali etc(list is too long)
They had powerful impact on the masses. DMK capitalised on this powerful media to disseminate its manifesto. It did work, and worked very well. The celluloid mirage became a reality.
The DMK also had glamorous actors like MGR, Sivaji Ganeson, S.S. Rajendran, NSK, K.R Ramasamy etc to boost the crowd. The involvement of cine stars in the party was a favourable factor. Powerul songs were also a contributory factor for the growth of the DMK ideology.
In politics one may resort to emotional issues in order to gain quick popularity. Normally politicians will go for racial, religious, and language issues. DMK went for all three. While advocating the growth of Tamil, they fanned anti Hindi feelings to a very high proportion. They even attacked Kambaramayanam saying that it is a work of the Aryans, and that the book contained a lot of vulgarism. They then told the Tamils to go for Chilappathikaram little realising that it too had vulgar descriptions. Such was the fanning that in 1965 it exploded into maanavar puratchi.
In so far as religion is concerned they never focussed on the divine teahings found in the religion, but went to expose only the corrupt practices by some quarters.
In order to fan the racial feelings they brought about the anti-Brahmin feelings. All the three are sensitive issues, and they combined them as the "tripple barrel gun" The Tamils were taken for a ride.
They kept on exposing the injustice in society and promised to alleviate them should they be given a "chance". Thses were played in movies. They played on the peasant polulation the suppressed, oppressed and depressed caste groups and the ignorant in society. These poor people believed that the DMK will salvage their trials and tribulations.
They also had a tendency of making fun of the Congress and the ruling party. Popular cine song tunes were used to compose songs belittling, attacking, teasing, condemning and ridiculing the congress. These song books were sold out.
But the fact remains that the oratory ability was the most powerful factor that mesmerised and hipnotised the Tamils. Anna had been a king at it.
Some of the ponmozhigal of Anna are as follows:
1. Kathiyai Theettathey, buthiyai Theettu
2. Maatran Thottathu Malligayilum manam undu
3. Ventha punnil velai paichatheer
4. Satta Sabayil Thappu Thalangal podatheer.
5.Banumathi onrum padi thaanda pathini alla,naanum mutrum thurantha munivanum alla. Thedi chelvathllai, naadi vanthaal viduvathillai.
6.Kadmai Kanniyam Kattuppadu
7.Onre Kulam Oruvane Devan
7. Olimayamana Ethirkalam kangalukku therikirathu.
The English talks that Anna gave in the anniversay of the UN Day celebrations, the Yale university etc and several other Tamil talks especially the inauguration ceremony in Tamil are still freshly ringing in my ears.
Karunanithi is a witty speaker. Annavukku Ninaivanjali, the narration he gave for the 2nd World Tamil Research Conference in 1968 in Madras are about the best, never to be rivalled.
Nedunjelian is of course called Navalar by virue of his oratory ability.
Kannadasan in the inital days was a humorous speaker. EVK Sambath was Sollin Selvar.
In short the DMK speakers were so powerful in oration that poeple were willing to give donations to listen to their talks. To put it around the DMK is the only party that collected lakhs to give talks.
These are only some of the reasons that could be cited for the growth of the party.
In the DMK convention of 1952 a decision was made not to contest elections. In 1957 elections it fielded 15 candidates. In 1962 it won 50 seats. Immediately the DMK started to campaign that it would capture the state assembly in the 1967 elections. People believed.And the DMK did win. What is mind boggling is that nothing was in favour of DMK in the 1967 elections. How did they win?......
(soon to be continued in PART III)
THE UNFAVOURABLE FACTORS
As mentioned ealrier, the DMK was confused from the beginning. Their stands were too radical or secere, so much so that most of thier issues were not that practical. They therefore saw their own weaknesses and surprisingly started to give up or compromise out of desperation when elections were around the corner. Let me point out some of their weaknesses in brief.
1. No one can deny that the biggest crowd puller in the DMk was the great and majestic personality called MGR. Though a few were jealous of his rise, Anna made full use of him. Anna once told publicly" All MGR had to do was show his face. He need not even speak. ALL the votes would be ours" Anna became a snake charmenr and MGR becam the snake. Anna used MGR to pull the crowd. MGR realised his own power and influence, and strted to show mischief off and on. Anna tolerated, no choice. But the biggest mischief came when MGR released the film Thanipiravi in the election year of 1967. In the song sequence " ethirpaaramal nadanthathadee, mugam kannukkul vizhunthathadee" MGR and Jayalalitha appeared as Murugan and Valli. This was sufficient to bring down the image of the DMK which never believed in God. Opposition factions capitlised on this and attacked DMK. ANNa as usual remained silent. SSR and Mu Ka attaked MGR from within. But sufficient damage was done.
2. Right from the beginning the claim for the Dravidar Nadu was an Utopia. There was no consent or consensus from Andhra, Karnataka anbd Kerala. Things were not clear. but DMk challenged that they would get the Dravidar Nadu at any cost. EVK met Anna and told him to give up this endless matter. Anna refused. Then later they started to ask for Thani Naadu for Tamilnadu alone. In 1962 Anna asked for it in Delhi Parliament. NEhru saw the danger of this and amended the constitution to make sure such claims are not taken up by any regional parties. So Anna had no choice, but to seek some excuses to sweep the matter under the carpet. He said although the DMK party has given up the requst for Thani Nadu it will still press the reasons as to why the pary had been requesting for it. The DMK said "puli pathungivittathu enru ennatheerkal. Puli pathunguvathellaaam paaivatharkuthaan" This was a political balti! The DMK became a laughing stock asthey gave up thier main issue itself.
3. The issue of Kadavul Kozhgai was compromised for the sake of vote bank. Periyaar was hitting Pilliyaar with chappels. The DMK and the DK were unpopular on this issue. It is not possible to create atheism overnight in a country where religion had taken roots for generations. So the DMK quietly spread rumours that Periyaar was only against the ill practices in religion, and that he himself quietly prayed to pilliyaar. On the DMK front Anna said that they believed in God, but not in religions. He said that the DMk believed in "onre kulam oruvane Devan" He also said that he saw God in the smile of the poor. This double standard of the DMk was also laughed at. Thiswas seen as a compromise of the basic principle.
4. In the Vellore conference, Kannadasan and EVK Sambath were "thrown" out of the party for questioning the stupidities and the dicatorship. They then started to expose the weaknesses in the DMK. Kannadasan especially hit the DMK very hard. People who knew the power of Kannadasan's pen never opposed him. That is the reason as to why MuKa and MGR "used" Kannadasan, but feared to hit him till the end. Anna especially told the thambies not to retaliate to Kannadasan's criticism as it would be too embarassing. Kannadasan tore DMK into pieces. DMK was defenceless, and sufficient damage was done.
5. Right from the beginning the DMK was usig an important but non-urgent issue to influence the crowd. They said that should they come to power, thy will make way for the fishing in the stinking Koovam Nathi, and make way for boating dfacilities. Of what benefit is this to the interiors of Tamilnaadu? Madras alone may benefit. Their promises were far too storong on rehabilitaiong Koovam. They painted an imaginary utopia in the floowing lines:
Koovam Nathiyin Misai Nilavinile
Koovidum Kuyilin Isaiyudane
Koottam Koottamaai Odivanthu
Thonikal Otti Vilaydaivaruvom
Anna nagapurathil padagu vittu
Adams roadu varai otti varuvom
Adikkum Koovathin Naatramthanai
Manakkum Marumanamaai maatrividuvom..
Right from the begining the people knew that this will never work. But the stronger the masses opposed, the stronger the DMK fought for it.
6. Periyaar was adirect threat for the DMK. He supported COngress, but not the DMK. Thsi was a sevre blow to DMK.
7. The one issuewhich won suport for the DMK among the ordinary people, esppecially the suppressed people was the anti Brahmin stand that DMk took. But later the party realised that it could not fight against the Brahmins that easily for various reasons. Though they were against the Brahmins, at amnu occassions the party needed the Brahmin support. When they became deseparate for votes, they started to coin words. They said"We are not against Brahmins, we only oppose Brahmanism. We are not against the snakes. We only oppose the venom in the snake" Bravo! The opponents saw that the DMk was once again degrading itself.
Such were some of the weaknesses that never favoured the DMK. There was utter confusion in the minds of the people, leave alone the DMK leaders.
(to be continued...)
THE DMK COMES TO POWER
Against these weaknesses turn of unexpected events became blessings for the DMK party.
1. The Congress went into a stage of complacency. they felt that they could easily win and that the DMk will never take over the power. The DMk had good leaders who could talk very well. But the Congress had no leader s who could speak well to pull the crowd. Kamraj was awy to the north to lead the Congress. This left a big vacuum in Tamilnadu. Bakthavathsalam was relatively new and needed time to organise things. The Congress attacked the most powerful media-the cine industry. It had actors by the side, but never made use of them. When Tamilnadu people were mesmerised and hipnotised by cinema, Congress condemned it. This was another blunder. There was undermining within COngress. In the 1967 elections Kamraj came back to contes for state assembly in the Virudunagar seat. It is said that Bakthavathsalam worked against Kamraj for fear that he would be voted in once again as the CM should congress win. Kamraj lost to the student leader Sreenivansan
2. Rajagopalachariyar(Rajaji) was not too happy with Congress. So he formed the "Swathanthiraa Kazhagam". That too did not work. On the eve of the elections Rajaji appeared in the Marina Beach DMK meeitng and opnely threw his support behind DMK. He opened his sentence as follows" Annavin thambimaarkale.. ennudaya pEranmaarkale.." The Congree was crippled. The Brahmin support too went to the DMK to a large extent.
3. When Bakthavathsalam came to power there was famine in Tamilnadu, coupled with crop failure. People were suffering. DMk capitalised on this and said it was the mismanagement of the congres rule. Peole belived this as the rice stocked in the canary and stock pile was not properly distributed.
4. As the elections were nearing the desperate DMK resorted to the strongest possible lie and made the people believe it. The price of rice at that time was Rs 3 for one padi. The DMk openly lied that they would give 3 padi rice for mrer RS one. People were shocked and questioned this promise of the impossible miracle. Peiyaar said "Dont believe these koothadikal" Anna retaliated by saying" What economics does Peiyar know? Should we fail to keep to our words please put us on open rooads and whip us" This was a stronger sentence. Peoplebelieved Anna.
5. Ariyaloor Azhagesasn weas the transport Minister in the COngress rule. There was aderailment of train which took away the lives of 300 people. DMk capitalised on this. It printed posters of passengers suffering. The caption read "Ariyaloor Azhages.. Neer Aandathu Pothum..Makkal maandathum pothu...pothum" This reflected badly on Congress.
6. TK Krishnamoorhty was the finance Minister under COngress rule. He made un unwise statement as follows" If only all the mothers of India were to melt all their "thali" India will settle its debt overnight. DMK again capitalised on this. It printed a poster in which the mothers of India were fleeing for safety as people of power came snatching the tali.The caption read "Tamilnaattu thaimaarkale.. ungaL thaligakaL Jakkirathai" Again this reflected badly on Congress.
7. All along DMK had been fanning anti Hindi feelings. When BAkthavathsalam was in rule, the anti Hindi feelings raeached unprecedented heights. The students opoosed compulsory imposing of Hindi in Tamilnadu colleges. Soon violence erupted and Bakthavathsalam amde a mistake by ordering the shooting of these students. DMK capitalised on this and the fortune of Congress reahed the lowes level.
(As a matter of fact while Tamilnadu was burning MGR was conveniently away to Goa to do shooting with Saroja Devi for Enga Veettu Pillai- Kumari Pennin Ullathile Kudi irukka naan Vara Vendum Kudi Irukka Naan varuvathendraal rental rate enna thara vendum?")
8. By this time through films, dialogues journalism stage oration etc the DMK managed to somehow convince the people of Tamilnadu that the salvation of the Tamils, the Tamil language and Tamilnadu was in the hands of DMK. This was a great plus point for DMK.
9. MR Radha did half done job that turned the wave totally in favour of DMK.on 12 January 1967 he shot MGR. MGR survived. I need ot go into the repetition of the emotions stirred. Let me say that many who did not suport DMk were supporters of MGR. But with this incident the supporters out oe emotion, and the spur of the moment becameDMk supporters. MGR contested in Parangimalai while bedridded in hospital. Posters of MGR bedridden were seen everywhere in DMK constituencies.
With these turn of events the DMK won. It was a victory based on turen of events, and not based on election manifesto or kozhgai as the kozhgakikal weree compromised or buried.
EVE OF THE ELECTIONS
The DMK members were so desperate that they even resorted to statements that could be inciting violence. Mu Ka especially said as follows on the eve of the elections " Oh Tamilnadu people.. Listen carefully. Tomorrow is the elections. The day after the DMK wins and comes to power. You 3 percent people(Brahmins) be careful. The day after the cabinet will be formed, and I will be the Honme Minister" SS Rajendran went one step ahead and printed out the shadow cabinet and distributed in Madras.
When the results were announced, many were shocked. Anna himself expected more seats than before but never expected a landslide victory. He immediately responded by saying" The power came to us too early" He immediately took his car and got Nednujelian, Mu Ka, Mathiyalagan, Anbalagan and went to Tiruchy without telling the reasons. There he met Periyaar and told that the DMk had won, and that it is a rule of Periyar. Peiyar was dumbfolded. He had no choice but to bless the koothadikal -so to say in his own words.
Upon return Anna met up with Bakthavathsalam on the formation of the cabinet. Bakthavathsalam only had one request, and that was not to give the porfolio of Home Minister to Mu Ka. Anna agreed and formed the cabinet where Mu Ka was Minister for Works, Nednjelian Minister of Education etc. etc. etc. The rest is history that we all know especially the younger generation.
Uthaya Sooriyan Ezhunthaan.. Makkal Ithayathil puthu Oli Thanthaan...
(NOTE: I have left out some details for obvious reasons) Thanks for the patience. Now we shall have discussions on the pros and cons of the Dravidian Movement. Thanks again.
There are many stories running about the fight between the two. But let me tell the story that is quite accurate, in my own findings.
You may remember the film Petralthaan Pillaya, which was the last film for the team work of MGR, Saroja Devi and MR Radha. It was the Tamil version of the KID by Charlie Chaplin. The producer Vasan wanted money to complete the movie. He asked MGR for the money, and MGR requested MR Radha to pay first on his "behalf". MR Radha was approached and the money was given on behalf of MGR. The film was completed.
MR Radha asked Vasan for the money. Vasan told him to go to the MGR on whose behalf MR Radha forwarded the cash. MR Radha thought of that as the right financial procedure and requested MGR to pay up. Apparaently MGR refused and so the misunderstanding started between the two. This aggravated further cuminating in the shooting incident. MR Radha was also shot, but this was not highlighted.
MR Radha was amember in the Dravidian party till the end. MGR was only in the DMK. MR Radha, along with Periyaar never supported DMK and its members. They supported Kamraj. Though DMK was against the Brahmins, Periyar and MRRadha considered Kamraj as the leader of the anit-Brahmin movement. This was a surprising news to me as well. M R Radha and the DMK may appear to be in the same circle, but they differed a lot. Anyway the DMK members were never united, as thee were too many strong personalities who had their own following along lines of interest, and of course caste.